What is Job Order Costing?

When your business is routinely producing exceptional items for clients, you may require a job order costing system to appropriately keep a check of each request. By utilizing a job order costing system, you can rest assured that the time and assets you’re utilizing to manufacture an item will bring in benefits for your organization. In a job order costing system, various components guarantee the precision of each job’s expense.

A job cost system gathers expenses caused by the separate jobs. Organizations usually use job cost systems to recognize individual items or at the time of producing items to satisfy a client’s specific wants. So what is job order costing?

Definition of Job Order Costing?

Job order costing is a framework adopted when clients request small, exclusive groups of items. This framework decides the cost of every item and guarantees that the expense for every item is practical enough for a client to buy it while giving a chance to the organization for generating profit.

Job order costing systems can pick up and track data from monetary assets like material expenses, finance records, overhead portions, and supplier invoices. A bookkeeper will utilize these assets to accumulate the information and ascertain or track it utilizing a job cost sheet. Likewise, they can also utilize a job order database to keep a check of every item by designating a particular distinguishing number for every item.

Features of Businesses That Have Job Order Costing System

With this technique, expenses are gathered and totaled for every job, work order, or task individually. Every employment can be independently recognized and it gets vital to examine the expenses as indicated by every work.

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The businesses that apply this technique for costing must have the below features:

  • Every type of work has its unique qualities and requires extraordinary action.
  • There is no consistency in the flow of manufacturing from office to office.
  • The idea of the occupation decides the office in which the job will be managed.
  • The manufacturing is temporary and not constant.
  • Every job is taken to be a cost unit with this strategy for costing.
  • Every job is uniquely notable by a creation order all along the creation stage.
  • The expenses of the creation of every job is found out after the finishing of the work.
  • The efforts vary from time to time as per the current amount of work.

Subsequently, the cost is determined for every work individually. A job order costing system would best fit the needs of a company that designs and produces printers, machine apparatuses producers, foundries, general designing workshops, promotions, decoration and case making, etc.

Example of Job Order Costing

Journal Inc is a printing organization that got an order for 5,000 invoice copies to be delivered to one of its clients. As per the order given by the client on 1st Aug 2019, Journal Inc. needs to deliver by 20th Aug 2019. According to the organization, they can complete the task in ten days. Consequently, they began the task on 5th Aug 2019 and allocated this job as a job no. 10/2019. While finishing this task below is the expense acquired by the organization.

  • Direct Materials: For the making of one duplicate of the invoice, two units of raw material are essential; in this way, for the creation of 5,000 duplicates, 10,000 units of raw material will be used up that has been secured by the organization at various dates according to the need. At first, the expense of raw material was $ 10 for every unit. But, from 13th Aug 2020, it has risen by $ 1 due to the lack of raw material in the market. The sum expense of raw material used up is $ 10500.
  • Direct Labor: In the creation of one duplicate of the invoice, one labor hour is required, and the expense of one labor hour is $ 5. For finishing the task, 5,000 labor hours have used up that organization has taken at various dates as indicated by the accessibility of raw material. The complete expense of direct work is $ 25,000.
  • Manufacturing Overhead: Cost sustained by the organization is $ 20,000 that incorporates deterioration of plant and apparatus, workshop and office lease, and different overheads sustained in the creation of these 5,000 copies of invoices.
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Job Order Costing vs Process Costing

Job order costing and process costing both are applicable to keep up the expenses of direct material, direct worker, and assembling overhead. Through the below determinants of job costing and process costing, we can contrast between the two costing approaches:

  • The uniqueness of Product: Job costing is required for rare items while process costing is required for normalized items.
  • Size of Job: Job costing is utilized for short level manufacturing while process costing is utilized for huge level creations
  • Record Keeping: A great deal of record-keeping is needed for job costing as time and resources must be dedicated to particular positions. Process costing uses aggregate costs thus doesn’t need much of record keeping.
  • Customer Billing: Job costing is bound to be utilized for billings to clients as it notes the specific expenses devoured by ventures authorized by clients.

Advantages of Job Order Costing

  • Controls the effectiveness of each unique job
  • Creates data-driven choices
  • Observes machine usage
  • Assists in deciding the likelihood of a specific job in the future
  • Ideal for businesses that vastly do routine jobs, like construction workers and counselors.
  • Keeps a check of both individual’s and group’s activity regarding cost-control, competence, and efficiency.

Disadvantages of Job Order Costing

  • Staff needs to keep a check of all resources used while on the job.
  • High scope of having errors.
  • Budget analysis between various jobs gets hard.


Job order costing serves to be helpful in deciding whether a particular job is beneficial. It enables the organization to make decisions about the estimation of materials, work, and overhead that will be used up at the performance of a specific task. Job order cost systems can likewise be applicable apart from the manufacturing domain and are regularly utilized in the creation of services. Similar cost monitoring and journaling methods apply, as the result also comprises of materials, workers, and overhead. Nonetheless, the terminology varies in a nonmanufacturing setting.

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