How to Calculate Earnings per Share (EPS)?

Earnings per share is the part of an organization’s benefit, which is distributed to every individual share of the stock. It holds much significance to shareholders and individuals who exchange in the stock market. When the earnings per share of a business are high, then its productivity also increases. For determining the earnings per share, the subjective ratio is the most sensible to consider, since the numbers of shares outstanding are likely to alter with time.

What Is Earnings Per Share (EPS)?

Earnings per share (EPS) tells the number of dollars of total income gained from every share of common stock throughout a specific period. EPS is registered by dividing total revenue minus preferred profit from the number of shares of common stock outstanding during that time. The general profit of an organization is measured by EPS, which is stated in dollars.

Why Does EPS Matter?

Earnings per share (EPS) is a vital budgetary quantity that highlights the effectiveness of a business. It is computed by dividing the business’ whole revenue from its total sum of outstanding shares. EPS is a tool used by shareholders on a regular basis to determine the benefit of a business before getting its shares.

How to Calculate Earnings per Share (EPS)?

We can calculate earnings per share by dividing the earnings available for common shares with average common shares outstanding. The earnings available for common shares here refers to the earnings after paying the dividend for preferred stock holders. Therefore, we can calculate the earrings per share by using the earnings per share formula as below:

EPS = Net income – Preferred dividends / Average common shares outstanding

The numerator is the total revenue accessible by regular investors (i.e. remaining gain subtracted from favored profit), while the denominator is the average common shares outstanding annually. It excludes preferred shares.

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EPS formula is like the equation of profit for common investors’ equity ratio aside from the EPS ratio formula’s denominator, the quantity of average common stock shares outstanding instead of the common stockholder’s equity in dollar sum.

Example and Analysis

Below is the information is taken from the budget summaries of John Electronics Ltd. You have to register the earnings per share ratio of the organization for the year 2016.

  • Remaining pay for the year 2016: $1,500,000
  • 6% total preferred outstanding stock on December 31, 2016: $3,000,000
  • $15 average price of common outstanding stock on December 31, 2016: $2,376,000

The numbers of shares are similar as they were on January 01, 2016, since the corporation did not deliver any different shares in the year 2016.

Solution:

Given the information, let’s figure out the EPS formula below:

EPS = ($1,500,000 – $180,000*)/158,400

EPS = $1,320,000/158,400

Hence, EPS = 8.33 per share

John Electronics has the EPS ratio of 8.33 that implies each portion of the organization’s common stock procured 8.33 dollars of remaining gain in the year 2016.

Surplus on preferred stock: $3000,000 × 0.06 = $180,000

What Is Diluted EPS?

Diluted earnings per share is a computation required to check the extent of an organization’s earnings per share (EPS) when all exchangeable securities were worked out. Convertible securities are largely outstanding convertible preferred shares, investment opportunities, convertible debentures, and authorizations. The diluted EPS will usually be lesser than the basic EPS, however; in the rare case that there are anti-dilutive securities, it might be greater.

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The Diluted EPS Ratio

Diluted earnings per share reflects what might occur if dilutive securities are worked out. Dilutive securities are not common stock, however, they can be transformed into common stock in case the owner practices the alternative. Whenever transformed, dilutive securities successfully increment the weighted number of outstanding shares that diminish EPS.

Adjusting the EPS Ratio

Generally, an organization accounts for EPS, which is changed due to exceptional items and possible share dilution. The earnings per share is calculated as the net benefit divided by the available shares. Another advanced calculation adjusts the numerator and denominator of shares, which are likely to be done by means of substitutes, convertible debts, or permits. The numerator of the equation is likewise additionally pertinent in case it is adjusted for proceeding with activities.

Effect of Preferred Dividends on Earnings per Share (EPS) Calculation

The profits on total and non-aggregate preferred stock affect the calculation of earnings per share in an unexpected way. The profit on total preferred stock for that time is constantly subtracted from overall gain despite registering that time’s EPS regardless of whether the executives don’t announce any isolated during the period.

Nonetheless, if there should be non-cumulative preferred stock, the profit isn’t subtracted from that time’s overall gain except if it is announced by the executives.

The dividends in arrears on total cumulative stock for last time are not subtracted by the present time’s total income during processing income per share of the present time. This is due to the profits that have been subtracted by the total revenue of past times for processing EPS of those periods.

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Limitation

Earnings per share is generally utilized, yet it has certain constraints. For instance, unrewarding organizations have a negative EPS, making the metric less helpful. Yet, you can apply the pattern for this number to check whether the organization is on the way to getting productive.

The number can likewise be deceiving and controlled with accounting techniques. For instance, numerous organizations that are spending more money than they are gaining can be made to appear to be productive with a positive EPS number. Thus, it is a smart thought to likewise keep a check at other productivity measurements, for example, operating income and free cash flow.

Conclusion

Earnings per share turns out to be particularly important when investors consider both past and future EPS figures for an organization, and when they look at EPS for organizations inside a similar industry. Since EPS is just one number, it is important to utilize it related to other performance measures before settling on any investment choices.

It is equivalent to any productivity or market prospect ratio. Higher earnings per share is in a way better than a lesser ratio since this implies the organization is more productive and the organization has more benefits to convey to its investors.

Although numerous shareholders do not give a lot of consideration to how to calculate earnings per share, higher earnings per share frequently make the stock cost of an organization go up. Since countless factors control this ratio, financial specialists will generally notice yet will not let it affect their choices severely. 

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